Minecraft: unable to create native thread
A minecraft server has problems creating threads. The error message reads:
java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create native thread: possibly out of memory or process/resource limits reached at java.lang.Thread.start0(Native Method) ~[?:?] at java.lang.Thread.start(Thread.java:802) ~[?:?] at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.addWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:945) ~[?:?] at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.execute(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1353) ~[?:?] at java.util.concurrent.Executors$DelegatedExecutorService.execute(Executors.java:721) ~[?:?] at org.bukkit.craftbukkit.v1_19_R2.scheduler.CraftAsyncScheduler.mainThreadHeartbeat(CraftAsyncScheduler.java:73)
The server in question has 32 GB of memory (6 GB used), 8 cores, and processes threads running. It is mostly idle. There is no reason at all why this machine should be out of resources.
VPS Limits, and how to check them
It is a VPS, and that may be related:
# lscpu | egrep -i '(visor|virt)' Address sizes: 46 bits physical, 48 bits virtual Virtualization: VT-x Hypervisor vendor: Parallels Virtualization type: container
The instance has a relatively low process limit, shown in
# grep numproc /proc/user_beancounters numproc 272 272 1100 1100 0
This shows a global limit of 1100 threads/processes.
There is an additional threads-per-process limit enforced by systemd, and this is relatively low, because of the low per-instance limit. It can be shown like this:
# systemctl show --property=DefaultTasksMax DefaultMax=135
This matches the numbers from the
The maximum utilization was 272 in the Beancounters, and the server never managed to hit the limit of 1100.
Instead, it made it to 2x 135 (two Minecraft servers, each with the limit of 135), and two additional threads.
It is possible to increase this limit to the instance limit, like so:
# mkdir /etc/systemd/systemd.conf.d` # cd /etc/systemd/system.conf.d # pwd /etc/systemd/system.conf.d # cat << EOF > system.conf # Override created by ... on ... # [Manager] DefaultTasksMax=1100
After creating this file, reload systemd and check the new limits:
# systemctl daemon-reexec # systemctl show --property=DefaultTasksMax DefaultMax=1100
Non-VPS has higher limits
On a physical server with 32 GB of memory and 8 cores, the default limit is
# systemctl show --property=DefaultTasksMax DefaultTasksMax=38313
and it can be tuned much higher. Similarly, on a properly virtualized box instead of a VPS it would be much higher.
Consider this when you opt for a cheap, overcomitted VPS slice instead of a proper KVM. When you go for the VPS, make a monthly contract and do not commit to a one-year option, so you can get rid of it when it turns out to be unsuitable.
Actual resource consumption
On our server, we run three instances of “Paper” (a high-performance patch to a patch to a patch of the original minecraft server), and waterfall, a Minecraft proxy that directs users between the instances.
Output of the
On the right hand side of the screenshot, we see three identically configured
java instances, each representing a “Paper” server.
The resident set size of these servers is relatively small, 3.5 GB per instance, as shown by the left-lower red bubble.
The virtual size is not quite 10 GB.
The server instance will grow until it reaches the virtual size.
Total memory consumption is shown in the upper-left bubble, 11.6 GB are used (the sum of the servers plus some extra from the OS).
We run the servers with
-Xmx4096M -Xms4096M each, which is rather generous.
This creates processes with a total
VIRT size of ~ 10 GB, of which
RES is the actually comitted memory, around 3.5 GB per process.
This results in 11.2 GB memory usage, plus 0.4 GB extra from other processes on the instance.
Our total memory is 32 GB.
The server load is shown as 0.41/8.0, so the machine is pretty idle, and the CPU load meters above the memory meter agrees.
Output of the
htop program, detail. When hitting
H to toggle display of user threads, the number of running threads is also shown.
We are running 245 threads.
H (Uppercase-H) in
htop unfolds user threads display. It also shows the total number of threads running next to the number of tasks (processes).
In our case, we are running with 245/1100 threads.
This is by far the most scarce resource.